UK coronavirus variant spread rapidly through care homes at end of 2020 – study

The UK coronavirus variant spread rapidly through care homes in England at the end of 2020 and accounted for 60% of positive cases analysed in two weeks, Government-funded research suggests.

In the South East, where the variant was most dominant, it accounted for 80% of positive test results in care home staff and residents processed in the second week of December and analysed by researchers from University College London (UCL).

Researchers analysed 4,442 positive PCR tests undertaken by care home residents and staff and processed between November 23 and December 13.

They were processed at the Lighthouse laboratory in Milton Keynes, one of the UK’s biggest coronavirus testing labs.

They were able to detect which infections were from the UK variant by identifying samples that tested positive on two gene targets but not on a third, the S gene, which is modified in the B.1.1.7. variant.

The variant accounted for 12% of positive care home tests in the week starting November 23, rising to 60% in the week beginning December 7.

Over the same period in the South East, positive tests due to the variant rose from 55% to 80%, and in London increased from 20% to 66%.

Researchers said the timing of infections suggested the new variant may have been passed from staff to residents, with positive cases among older people occurring later.

The majority of samples were from care homes in the South East, West Midlands, London, or the East Midlands, with the results unlikely to be representative of all care homes across England.

Senior author Dr Laura Shallcross, from the UCL Institute of Health Informatics, said: “Our findings suggest the UK variant spread just as quickly in care homes as it did in the general population.

“This shows the importance of public health measures to reduce transmission in the country as a whole.”

Lead author Dr Maria Krutikov, from the UCL Institute of Health Informatics, said: “Our results are consistent with national trends, suggesting that the UK variant was present in care homes from early on, although our sample did not fully represent all care homes in England.

“As we carried out this work in December, we were able to inform public health decisions at the time.

“To see how viruses like Covid-19 are changing and to respond quickly and appropriately, it is really important we have an advanced surveillance system, with gene sequencing that can identify new variants as early as possible.”

The research was conducted as part of the Vivaldi study looking at Covid-19 infections in care homes, and received funding from the Department of Health and Social Care.

It is published as a letter in the New England Journal of Medicine.

A DHSC spokesperson said: “Protecting residents in care homes is a key priority and we are doing everything we can to support the sector, including offering free PPE, regular testing and providing over £1.1 billion for infection control measures.

“In the face of the new variant, we acted to protect those most at risk in care homes, with an additional £269 million to fund tests and increase staffing. In addition, we have prioritised residents for a vaccine in line with advice from the independent JCVI.

“This study helped inform our response to the new variant and the national restrictions and vaccination programme are helping to reduce transmission. It is vital we all continue to follow the latest guidance to reduce infections, stay safe and save lives.”

Copyright (c) PA Media Ltd. 2021, All Rights Reserved. Picture (c) Owen Humphries / PA.